Reprographics and Image Use

Copyright laws apply to all forms of reproduction. As a general rule, copyright expires after 70 years after the death of the author of a book. Please note that you must abide by the following rules for copyrighted material reproduced for your own private use:

The limits for fair dealing copying from any one publication are generally accepted to be:

  • One article from any one issue of a journal (even if that one article is the whole issue)
  • One chapter or up to 5% (whichever is greater) of a book or similar publication
  • Up to 10% of a short book of up to 200 pages (Library Association guidelines)
  • One poem or short story of up to 10 pages from an anthology
  • The report of one case in law reports

Please note that all material which is out-of-copyright but held at The Linnean Society is "By Permission of The Linnean Society of London" only.


If material is not suitable to be photocopied or you would like to request images remotely, we may be able to scan or photograph it in-house. This service cannot be provided ad-hoc and material cannot be reproduced en masse. There may be a fee for this service and the condition of the requested material may prevent it from being imaged. We will ask you to complete a Reprographics Request Form

Images and text scans can be requested by contacting

Please note that new photography and scanning is usually only carried out on Tuesdays and Wednesdays.

We do not usually supply high-resolution specimen images for private use, as high-quality, zoomable images are freely available through our Online Collections.

Images for publication

For use of reproductions from our collections in publications, for other commercial uses and/or online, a Reprographics Request Form must be completed.

Applications must include a statement of the purpose for the reproductions, including details of publisher and author of any intended book, article, web publication or merchandise.

The Society reserves the right to refuse permission to publish.

It is the requester’s responsibility to ensure that all copyright that The Linnean Society may not own or not solely own is cleared before publishing or using the image(s).

Fees may apply and a fee schedule will be presented when you submit an image request. To make a request, email

Our Journals

Please note that The Linnean Society of London does not hold the copyright for copyrighted and digitised content of our journals available through Oxford University Press, which includes:

For all requests to re-use content in copyright from these journals, please go to the individual paper abstract in the journal online (free access) and follow the link to ‘Request Permissions’. This should then take you through to an automatic and immediate process to grant permission.

Other publications

The Linnean Society holds the copyright for the following publications. Please email if you would like to re-use content from these publications:

  • The Linnean: Newsletter and Proceedings of the Linnean Society
  • Letters to Linnaeus
  • Order out of Chaos
  • Linnean Symposia
  • Synopses of the British Fauna
  • A Bicentenary History of the Linnean Society

Own photography

Images may only be taken by permission and at the discretion of Library staff. Copyright legislation applies to all copyrighted material (as a general rule, copyright expires after 70 years after the death of the author of a book).

A Photography Permission Form has to be completed for all photography. Please ask a member of staff.

Flashes may not be used to photograph any of the Library’s material.


Please ask Library staff if you wish to photocopy any material. Not all material is suitable for copying, due to age, size or condition, so please check with staff first.

You can photocopy material yourself or ask the Library staff to do it for you. Photocopies cost 10p per page for A4, and 20p per page for A3. Colour-photocopying is 50p for A4 and £1 for A3.

Commissioned photography

Professional new photography may be commissioned for items in our collections, provided arrangements are made with our approved photographers and their costs are paid.