Reprographics and Image Use

If you would like to re-use or publish any images or digital content produced and/or owned by the Linnean Society from any source, please follow the procedures highlighted below. We do require that permission is sought for all image re-use. As a small charity, we depend not only on the revenue from reprographics, but also on the recognition and visibility that image re-use allows.

Reprographics requests

The Linnean Society provides a reprographics (digital photography) service for items in the Library, Archives, and Collections. Image requests need to be made by submitting a completed Reprographics Request form to You will then be advised on the total cost of your order and how to pay. Once payment is received, most orders should be completed within two weeks.
Please do not attempt to pay before your order is accepted and the total cost is confirmed.

Please note, some requests may be refused due to copyright or the condition of the item(s) requested.
(*See note regarding our Online Collections images.)

Current Fellows, Associates, and Student Associates of the Linnean Society will receive a 25% discount on the listed fees. All prices include 20% VAT.

    • Standard quality images
      Sent as PDF files and are suitable for research but not reproduction.
      • £6.00 for the first page of each item
      • 36p for each additional page of an item
    • High quality images
      Sent as JPEG or TIFF files (300 dpi unless otherwise requested) and are suitable for reproduction.
      • £12.00/image

    Images will be sent by WeTransfer or email.

    * We do not supply images found in our Online Collections for private use/research, as these images can be studied just as well through our Online Collections viewer. (You would receive the same image and quality if you were to request the image.) If you require one of these images for a publication or lecture, you may request a high-resolution image once all the publication details are known. If you need an Online Collections image for your manuscript/paper as a placeholder or for submission, please use a low-resolution image directly from the Online Collections, by right clicking and selecting 'save as' on the image. Once your manuscript/paper has been accepted for publication, you may then request a high-resolution image and the permission to publish it.

    Permission to reproduce images

    If you would like to reproduce images or any other digital content taken at or produced by the Linnean Society, including own-photography images, you will need to submit a completed Application for Permission to Reproduce Images to Please do not submit the form until you know the full details of the publication/reproduction. If you also require a copy of the image(s), you will need to complete a separate Reprographics Request form (see above).

    There is a permission fee for some categories of publication. However, reproduction of images for publications with low print runs (under 1,000), academic journals, freely accessible non-commercial websites, free-admission exhibitions, theses, and some other categories will not be charged a fee. A full fee schedule is available here. Current Fellows, Associates, and Student Associates of the Linnean Society will receive a 25% discount on the listed fees, when applicable.

    Once your completed form is submitted, your request will be reviewed.

    • Incomplete forms will be returned and permission will not be granted until more detail can be provided.
    • If payment is required, permission will not be granted until payment is received.
    • If permission is granted, you will receive confirmation in writing (usually by email).

    The Society reserves the right to refuse permission to publish.

    Acknowledgement: Full acknowledgement must be made for each image used, citing both the image reference (if available) and “Permission of the Linnean Society of London”.

    Websites and other digital media: Society images that are being published on websites or other forms of digital media must be published in a way that does not allow for high-resolution copies of the images to be downloaded or obtained by third parties.

    Copyright: It is the requester’s responsibility to ensure that all copyright the Linnean Society may not own or not solely own is cleared before publishing or using the image(s). The Linnean Society accepts no responsibility for any breach of copyright by a publisher.


    You can pay for Reprographics Requests or Permissions to Reproduce Images securely via our website or by requesting an invoice.

    If you would like to pay online, please wait until your order is accepted and the total cost is confirmed.

    Use this link to pay online: Reprographics Payment

    Own photography

    Photographs may be taken only by permission and at the discretion of Collections staff. A Photography Permission form, which outlines the rules for own photography, must be completed. Please speak to a member of staff.

    If you would like to reproduce/publish any of your own photography, you will need to complete an Application for Permission to Reproduce Images (see above).

    Flashes may not be used to photograph any of the Collections material.

    Our journals

    Please note that the Linnean Society does not handle copyright requests for our journals available through Oxford University Press, which include:

    For all requests to reproduce content in copyright from these journals, please go to the abstract of the paper of interest in the journal online (free access) and follow the ‘Permissions’ link.

    Other publications

    The Linnean Society holds the copyright for the following publications:

    • The Linnean: Newsletter and Proceedings of the Linnean Society
    • Letters to Linnaeus
    • Order out of Chaos
    • Linnean Symposia
    • Synopses of the British Fauna
    • A Bicentenary History of the Linnean Society
    • The Lord Treasurer of Botany

    Please email if you would like to reproduce content from any of these publications.


    Copyright laws apply to all forms of reproduction. As a general rule, copyright expires after 70 years after the death of the author of a book. Please note that you must abide by the following rules for copyrighted material reproduced for your own private use:

    The limits for fair dealing copying from any one publication are generally accepted to be:

    • One article from any one issue of a journal (even if that one article is the whole issue)
    • One chapter or up to 5% (whichever is greater) of a book or similar publication
    • Up to 10% of a short book of up to 200 pages (Library Association guidelines)
    • One poem or short story of up to 10 pages from an anthology
    • The report of one case in law reports

    Filling in forms digitally

    If you would like to fill in any of our PDF forms digitally, you can do so by clicking on the link to the form, downloading the form, and opening it in Adobe Acrobat Reader. When the PDF is open in Adobe Reader, you should be able to click on 'Fill & Sign' either on the menu bar to the right or from the Tools tab at the top. You can also use the 'Certificates' tool to create a secure digital signature that can be used for any future digital forms. Click here to get the latest free version of Adobe Acrobat Reader.